LNA Library

 

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A

Aartsma-Rus, A., Kaman, W.E., Bremmer-Bout, M., Janson, A.A. Den Dunnen, J.T., Van Ommen, G.J., Van Deutekom, J.C. Comparative analysis of antisense oligonucleotide analogs for targeted DMD exon 46 skipping in muscle cells. Gene Ther. 2004, 11, 1391.

Andrieu-Soler, C., Casas, M., Faussat, A.M., Gandolphe, C., Doat, M., Tempe, D., Giovannangeli, C., Behar-Cohen, F., Concordet, J.P. Stable transmission of targeted gene modification using single-stranded oligonucleotides with flanking LNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005, 33, 3733.

Anissa, N., Elayadi, D.R.C. Application of PNA and LNA oligomers to chemotherapy. Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs 2001, 2, 558.

Arjomand-Nahad, F., Diefenbach, K., Landt, O., Gaikovitch, E., Roots, I. Genotyping of the triallelic variant G2677T/A in MDR1 using LightCycler with locked-nucleic-acid-modified hybridization probes. Anal. Biochem. 2004, 334, 201.

Arzumanov, A., Walsh, A.P., Liu, X., Rajwanshi, V.K., Wengel, J., Gait, M.J. Oligonucleotide analogue interference with the HIV-1 Tat protein-TAR RNA interaction. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids, 2001, 20, 471.

Arzumanov, A., Walsh, A.P., Rajwanshi, V.K., Kumar, R., Wengel, J., Gait, M.J. Inhibition of HIV-1 Tat-dependent trans activation by steric block chimeric 2'-O-methyl/LNA oligoribonucleotides. Biochemistry, 2001, 40, 14645.

Arzumanov, A., Stetsenko, D. A., Malakhov, A. D., Reichelt, S., Sørensen, M. D., Babu, B. R., Wengel, J., and Gait, M. J. A structure-activity study of the inhibition of HIV-1 Tat-dependent trans-activation by mixmer 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides containing locked nucleic acid (LNA), alfa-L-LNA or 2'-thio-LNA residues. Oligonucleotides, 2003, 13, 435.

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B

Babu, B.R., Hrdlicka, P.J., McKenzie, C.J., Wengel, J. Optimized DNA targeting using N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-[small beta]-alanyl 2[prime or minute]-amino-LNA. Chem Commun. 2005, 13, 1705.

Babu, B.R., Prasad, A.K., Trikha, S., Thorup, N., Parmar, V.S., Wengel, J. Conformationally locked aryl C-nucleosides: synthesis of phosphoramidite monomers and incorporation into single-stranded DNA and LNA (locked nucleic acid). J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1, 2002, 2509.

Babu, B.R., Raunak; Sørensen, M.H., Hrdlicka, P.J., Trikha, S., Prasad, A.K., Parmar, V.S., Wengel, J. Novel nucleic acid architectures involving locked nucleic acid (LNA) and pyrene residues: Results from an Indo-Danish collaboration. Pure Appl. Chem. 2005, 77, 319.

Babu, B.R., Wengel, J. Aryl-beta-C-LNA monomers as universal hybridization probes. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2003, 22, 1317.

Babu, B.R., Wengel, J. Universal hybridization using LNA (locked nucleic acid) containing a novel pyrene LNA nucleotide monomer. Chem. Commun. 2001, 2114.

Berry, A., Senescau, A., Benoit-Vical, F., Landt, O., Lelievre, J., Fabre, R., Cassaing, S., Magnaval, J.F. Detection of a minority mutant population by a clamping probe assay using a locked nucleic acid: Demonstration on the Pfcrt K 76 T mutation of Plasmodium falciparum. Abstract Book, Medicine And Health In The Tropics, Marseille 2005, O-209.

Bondensgaard, K., Petersen, M., Singh, S.K., Rajwanshi, V.K., Kumar, R., Wengel, J., Jacobsen, J.P. Structural studies of LNA:RNA duplexes by NMR: conformations and implications for RNase H activity. Chem. Eur. J. 2000, 6, 2687.

Braasch, D.A., Corey, R. Locked nucleic acid (LNA): fine-tuning the recognition of DNA and RNA. Chemistry & Biology 2000, 55, 1.

Braasch, D.A., Jensen, S., Liu, Y., Kaur, K., Arar, K., White, M.A., Corey, D.R. RNA interference in mammalian cells by chemically-modified RNA. Biochemistry 2003, 42, 7967.

Braasch, D.A., Liu, Y., Corey, D.R. Antisense inhibition of gene expression in cells by oligonucleotides incorporating locked nucleic acids: effect of mRNA target sequence and chimera design. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30, 5160.

Brunet, E., Alberti, P., Perrouault, L., Babu, R., Wengel, J., Giovannangeli, C. Exploring cellular activity of locked nucleic acid-modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides and defining its molecular basis. J. Biol. Chem. 2005, 280, 20076.

Brunet, E., Corgnali, M., Perrouault, L., Roig, V., Asseline, U., Sorensen, M.D., Babu, B.R., Wengel, J., Giovannangeli, C. Intercalator conjugates of pyrimidine locked nucleic acid-modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides: improving DNA binding properties and reaching cellular activities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005, 33, 4223.

Bryld, T., Wengel, J. Synthesis of a base-protected xylo-LNA adenine nucleoside. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2003, 22, 1163.

Bryld, T., Sørensen, M. H., Nielsen, P., Koch, T., Nielsen, C., and Wengel, J. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel conformationally locked nucleosides and masked 5’-phosphate derivatives thereof. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1, 2002, 1655.

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C

Chernolovskaya, E.L., Koshkin, A.A., Vlassov, V.V. Interaction of LNA oligonucleotides with mdr1 promoter. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids, 2001, 20, 847.

Childs, J.L., Disney, M.D., Turner, D.H. Oligonucleotide directed misfolding of RNA inhibits Candida albicans group I intron splicing. PNAS, 2002, 99, 11091.

Chou, L.S., Meadows, C. Wittwer, C.T., Lyon, E. Unlabeled oligonucleotide probes modified with locked nucleic acids for improved mismatch discrimination in genotyping by melting analysis. Biotechniques 2005, 39, 644.

Christensen, N.K., Bryld, T., Sorensen, M.D., Arar, K., Wengel, J., Nielsen, P. Parallel nucleic acid recognition by the LNA (locked nucleic acid) stereoisomers β-L-LNA and α-D-LNA; studies in the mirror image world. Chem Commun 2004, 282.

Christensen, N.K., Dahl, B.M., Nielsen, P. Incorporation of alfa- and beta-LNA (Locked Nucleic Acid) Monomers in Oligodeoxynucleotides with Polarity Reversals. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2001, 11, 1765.

Christensen, N.K., Dalskov, J.K., Nielsen, P. Synthesis and evaluation of alpha-LNA. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids, 2001, 20, 825.
Christensen, N.K., Petersen, M., Vester, B., Nielsen, P. Alpha-LNA (alpha-D-configured locked nucleic acid). Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2003, 22, 1143.

Christensen, S.M., Rosenbohm, C., Sorensen, M., Larsen, L.E., Wengel, J., Koch, T. Improved synthesis of 2'-amino-LNA. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2003, 22, 1131.

Christensen, U., Jacobsen, N., Rajwanshi, V.K., Wengel, J., Koch, T. Stopped-flow kinetics of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-oligonucleotide duplex formation: studies of LNA-DNA and DNA-DNA interactions. Biochem. J., 2001, 354, 481.

Christiansen, J.K., Lobedanz, S., Arar, K., Wengel, J. and Vester, B. LNA nucleotides improve cleavage efficiency of singular and binary hammerhead ribozymes. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2007), 15, 6135-43. 

Collado, M., Landt, O., Barragan, E., Lass, U., Cervera, J., Sanz, M.A., Bolufer, P. Locked Nucleic Acid-Enhanced Detection of 1100delC*CHEK2 Germ-Line Mutation in Spanish Patients with Hematologic Malignancies. Clin. Chem. 2004, 50, 2201.

Constans, A. Toward a One-Chip-Fits-All Array. The Scientist 2002, 16, 49.

Costa, J.M., Ernault, P., Olivi, M., Gaillon, T., Arar, K. Chimeric LNA/DNA probes as a detection system for real-time PCR2. Clin. Biochem. 2004, 37, 930.

Crinelli, R., Bianchi, M., Gentilini, L., Magnani, M. Design and characterization of decoy oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30, 2435.

Crinelli, R., Bianchi, M., Gentilini, L., Palma, L., Magnani, M. Locked nucleic acids (LNA): versatile tools for designing oligonucleotide decoys with high stability and affinity. Curr. Drug Targets 2004, 5, 745.

Crinelli, R., Bianchi, M., Gentilini, L., Palma, L., Sorensen, M.D., Bryld, T., Babu, R.B., Arar, K., Wengel, J., Magnani, M. Transcription factor decoy oligonucleotides modified with locked nucleic acids: an in vitro study to reconcile biostability with binding affinity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32, 1874.

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D


Darfeuille, F., Hansen, J.B., Orum, H., Di Primo, C., Toulme, J.J. LNA/DNA chimeric oligomers mimic RNA aptamers targeted to the TAR RNA element of HIV-1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32, 3101.

Dash, C., Yi-Brunozzi, H.Y., Le Grice, S.F. Two modes of HIV-1 polypurine tract cleavage are affected by introducing locked nucleic acid analogs into the (-) DNA template. J. Biol. Chem. 2004, 279, 37095.

Decousser, J.W., Methlouthi, I., Pina, P., Collignon, A., and Allouch, P. New real-time PCR assay using locked nucleic acid probes to assess prevalence of ParC mutations in fluoroquinolone-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from France. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2006, 50, 1594.

Demidov, V.V. PNA and LNA throw light on DNA. Trends Biotechnol. 2002, 21, 4.

Di Giusto, D.A., and King, G.C.  Strong positional preference in the interaction of LNA oligonucleotides with DNA polymerase and proofreading exonuclease activities: implications for genotyping assays. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32, e32.

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E


Egli, M., Minasov, G., Teplova, M., Kumar, R., Wengel, J. X-ray crystal structure of a locked nucleic acid (LNA) duplex composed of a palindromic 10-mer DNA strand containing one LNA thymine monomer. Chem. Commun. 2001, 651.

Elayadi, A.N., Braasch, D.A., Corey, D.R. Implications of high-affinity hybridization by locked nucleic acid oligomers for inhibition of human telomerase. Biochemistry, 2002, 41, 9973.

Elmen, J., Thonberg, H., Ljungberg, K., Frieden, M., Westergaard, M., Xu, Y., Wahren, B., Liang, Z., Orum, H., Koch, T., Wahlestedt, C. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) mediated improvements in siRNA stability and functionality. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005, 33, 439.

Elmen, J., Zhang, H.Y., Zuber, B. Ljungberg, K., Wahren, B., Wahlestedt, C., Liang, Z. Locked nucleic acid containing antisense oligonucleotides enhance inhibition of HIV-1 genome dimerization and inhibit virus replication. FEBS Lett. 2004, 578, 285.

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F


Fahmy, R.G., Khachigian, L.M. Locked nucleic acid modified DNA enzymes targeting early growth response-1 inhibit human vascular smooth muscle cell growth. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32, 2281.

Filichev, V.V., Christensen, U.B., Pedersen, E.B., Babu, B.R., Wengel, J. Locked nucleic acids and intercalating nucleic acids in the design of easily denaturing nucleic acids: thermal stability studies. Chembiochem 2004, 5, 1673.

Filichev, V.V., Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., Abdel Aal, M.T., Babu, B.R., Wengel, J., Pedersen, E.B. Enhanced inhibition of transcription start by targeting with 2'-OMe pentaribonucleotides comprising locked nucleic acids and intercalating nucleic acids. Chembiochem. 2005, 6, 1181.

Fluiter, K., Frieden, M., Vreijling, J., Koch, T., Baas, F. Evaluation of LNA-Modified DNAzymes Targeting a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Large Subunit of RNA Polymerase II. Oligonucleotides 2005, 15, 246.

Fluiter, K., Frieden, M., Vreijling, J., Rosenbohm, C., De Wissel, M.B., Christensen, S.M., Koch, T., Orum, H., Baas, F. On the in vitro and in vivo Properties of Four Locked Nucleic Acid Nucleotides Incorporated into an Anti-H-Ras Antisense Oligonucleotide. Chembiochem 2005, 6, 1104.

Fluiter, K., Ten Asbroek, A.L., De Wissel, M.B., Jakobs, M.E., Wissenbach, M., Olsson, H., Olsen, O., Oerum, H., Baas, F. In vivo tumor growth inhibition and biodistribution studies of locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31, 953.

Frieden,  M., Christensen, S.M., Mikkelsen, N.D., Rosenbohm, C., Thrue, C.A., Westergaard, M., Hansen, H.F., Orum, H., Koch, T. Expanding the design horizon of antisense oligonucleotides with alpha-L-LNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31, 6365.

Frieden, M., Hansen, H.F., Koch, T. Nuclease stability of LNA oligonucleotides and LNA-DNA chimeras. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2003, 22, 1041.

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G

Gamper, H.B., Arar, K., Gewirtz, A., Hou, Y.M. Unrestricted accessibility of short oligonucleotides to RNA1. RNA 2005, 11, 1441.

Gamper, H.B., Nulf, C.J., Corey, D.R., Kmiec, E.B. The synaptic complex of RecA protein participates in hybridization and inverse strand exchange reactions. Biochemistry 2003, 42, 2643.

Gaubert, G., Babu, B.R.,Vogel, S., Bryld, T., Vester, B.,  and Wengel, J. Synthesis and RNA-selective hybridization of alfa-L-ribo- and alfa-D-lyxo-configures oligonucleotides. Tetrahedron 2006, 62, 2287.

Gaubert, G., Wengel, J. Synthesis of a base-protected alpha-L-LNA guanine nucleoside. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2003, 22, 1155.

Goldenberg, O., Landt, O., Schumann, R.R., Gobel, U.B., Hamann, L. Use of locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides as hybridization/FRET probes for quantification of 16S rDNA by real-time PCR. Biotechniques 2005, 38, 29.

Grannemann, S., Landt, O., Breuer, S., Blomeke, B. LightTyper assay with locked-nucleic-acid-modified oligomers for genotyping of the toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms A896G and C1196T. Clin. Chem. 51, 1523.

Grunweller, A., Wyszko, E., Bieber, B., Jahnel, R., Erdmann, V.A., Kurreck, J. Comparison of different antisense strategies in mammalian cells using locked nucleic acids, 2'-O-methyl RNA, phosphorothioates and small interfering RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31, 3185.

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H

Haakansson, A. E., Koshkin, A.A., Srensen, M.D. and Wengel J. Convenient syntheses of 7-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-3-thymin-1-yl)-2, 5-dioxabicyclo [2.2.1] heptanes: a-L-Ribo-and a-L-xylo-configured LNA Nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 5161.

Haakansson, A.E., Wengel, J. The adenine derivative of a-L-LNA (a-L-ribo configured locked nucleic acid): synthesis and high-affinity hybridization towards DNA, RNA, LNA and a-L-LNA complementary sequences. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2001, 11, 935.

Hansen, H.F., Olsen, O., Koch, T. New standards in LNA synthesis. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2003, 22, 1273.

Hansen, J.B., Westergaard, M., Thrue, C.A., Giwercman, B., Oerum, H. Antisense knockdown of PKC-alpha using LNA-oligos. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2003, 22, 1607.

Hari, Y., Obika, S., Inohara, H., Ikejiri, M., Une, D., Imanishi, T. Synthesis and triplex-forming ability of 2',4'-BNAs bearing imidazoles as a nucleobase. Chem Pharm Bull. 2005, 53, 843.

Hari, Y., Obika, S., Sasaki, M. Effective synthesis of C-nucleosides with 2'-4'-BNA modification. Tetrahedron, 2002, 58, 3051.

Hertoghs, K.M., Ellis, J.H., Catchpole, I.R. Use of locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides to add functionality to plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31, 5817.

Holasova, S., Mojzisek, M., Buncek, M., Vokurkova, D., Radilova, H., Safarova, M., Cervinka, M., Haluza, R. Cholesterol conjugated oligonucleotide and LNA: a comparison of cellular and nuclear uptake by Hep2 cells enhanced by Streptolysin-O. Mol. Cell Biochem. 2005, 276, 61.

Holm, A. I. S., Worm, E. S., Ckakraborty, T., Babu, B. R., Wengel, J., Vrønning Hoffmann, S., Brøndsted Nielsen, S. On the influence of conformational locking of sugar moieties on the absorption and circular dichroism of nucleosides from synchrotron radiation experiments. J. Photochem. Photobiol., A. 2007, 187, 293.

Holmes, S.C., Arzumanov, A.A., Gait, M.J. Steric inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat-dependent trans-activation in vitro and in cells by oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-methyl G-clamp ribonucleoside analogues. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31, 2759.

Hrdlicka, P. J., Andersen, N. K., Jepsen, J. S., Hansen, F. G., Haselmann, K. F., Nielsen, C., and Wengel, J. Synthesis and biological evaluation of branched and conformationally restricted analogs of the anticancer compounds 3’-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3’-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd). Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2005, 13, 2597.

Hrdlicka, P. J., Babu, B. R., Sørensen, M. D., and Wengel, J. Interstrand communication between 2'-N-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-2'-amino-LNA monomers in nucleic acid duplexes: directional control and signalling of full complementarity. Chem. Commun. 2004, 1478.

Hrdlicka, P. J., Babu, B. R., Sørensen, M. D., Harrit, N., and Wengel, J. Multilabeled pyrene-functionalized 2’-amino-LNA probes for nucleic acid detection in homogeneous fluorescence assays. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13293.

Hrdlicka, P. J., Jepsen, J. S., and Wengel, J. Synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally restricted and nucleobase-modified analogs of the anticancer compound 3’-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd). Nucleosides, Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2005, 24, 397.

Hrdlicka, P. J., Kumar, T. S., and Wengel, J. Synthesis of a 2’-amino-a-L-LNA-T phosphor¬amidite. Nucleosides, Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2005, 24, 1101.

Hrdlicka, P.J., Kumar, T.S., Wengel, J. Targeting of mixed sequence double-stranded DNA using pyrene-functionalized 2'-amino-alpha-L-LNA. Chem Commun. 2005, 34, 4279.

Hughes, J.A., Bennett, C.F., Cook, P.D., Guinosso, C.J., Mirabelli, C.K., Juliano, R.L. Lipid membrane permeability of 2'-modified derivatives of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. J. Pharm. Sci. 1994, 83, 597.

Hummelshøj, L., Ryder, L.P., Madsen, H.O., Poulsen, L.K. Locked nucleic acid inhibits amplification of contaminating DNA in real-time PCR. BioTechniques 2005, 38, 605.

Håkansson, A. E., Koshkin, A.A., Srensen, M.D. and Wengel J. Convenient syntheses of 7-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-3-thymin-1-yl)-2, 5-dioxabicyclo [2.2.1] heptanes: a-L-Ribo-and a-L-xylo-configured LNA Nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 5161.

Håkansson, A.E., and Wengel, J. The adenine derivative of a–L-LNA (a-L-ribo configured locked nucleic acid): synthesis and high-affinity hybridization towards DNA, RNA, LNA and a–L-LNA complementary sequences. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2001, 11, 935.

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I

 

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J

Jacobsen, N., Bentzen, J., Meldgaard, M., Jakobsen, M.H., Fenger, M., Kauppinen, S., Skouv, J. LNA-enhanced detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30, e100.

Jacobsen, N., Fenger, M., Bentzen, J., Rasmussen, S.L., Jakobsen, M.H., Fenstholt, J., Skouv, J. Genotyping of the apolipoprotein B R3500Q mutation using immobilized locked nucleic acid capture probes. Clin. Chem. 2002, 48, 657.

Jacobsen, N., Nielsen, P.S., Jeffares, D.C., Eriksen, J., Ohlsson, H., Arctander, P., Kauppinen, S. Direct isolation of poly(A)+ RNA from 4 M guanidine thiocyanate-lysed cell extracts using locked nucleic acid-oligo(T) capture. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32, e64.

Jakobsen, N., Fensholdt, J., Nørholm, M., Bentzen, J., Skouv, J. Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) - a Promising New Approach for Determination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. International Biotechnology Laboratory 2001, Molecular Biology Kits & Reagents; Application Note.

Jensen, G.A., Singh, S.K., Kumar, R., Wengel, J., Jacobsen, J.P. A comparison of the solution structures of an LNA:DNA duplex and the unmodified DNA:DNA duplex. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 2001, 1224.

Jepsen, J.S., Pfundheller, H.M., Lykkesfeldt, A.E.Downregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 cells by antisense oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acid (LNA). Oligonucleotides 2004, 14, 147.

Jepsen, J. S. and Wengel, J. LNA-Antisense rivals siRNA for gene silencing. Curr. Opin. Drug Disc. Dev. 2004, 7, 188.

Jepsen, J.S., Sørensen, M.H., Wengel, J. Locked Nucleic Acid: A Potent Nucleic Acid Analog in Therapeutics and Biotechnology. Oligonucleotides 2004, 14, 130.

Johnson, M.P., Haupt, L.M., Griffiths, L.R. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype analysis and validation using real-time PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 2004, 32, e55.

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K

Kalra, N., Babu, B.R., Parmar, V.S., Wengel, J. Conformationally controlled high-affinity targeting of RNA or DNA by novel 2'-amino-DNA/LNA mixmers and pyrenyl-functionalized 2'-amino-DNA. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2004, 2, 2885.

Kalra, N., Parlato, M. C., Parmar, V. S., and Wengel, J. DNA and LNA oligonucleotides containing N2’-functionalised derivatives of 2’-amino-2’-deoxyuridine. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006, 16, 3166.

Karwowski, B., Okruszek, A., Wengel, J., Stec, W.J. Stereocontrolled synthesis of LNA dinucleoside phosphorothioate by the oxathiaphospholane approach. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2001, 11, 1001.

Kauppinen, S., Vester, B., and Wengel, J. Locked nucleic acid (LNA): High affinity targeting of Complementary RNA for diagnostics and therapeutics. Drug Disc. Today: Technologies, 2005, 2, 287.

Kaur, H. Arora, A. Wengel, J. Maiti, S. Thermodynamic, Counterion, and Hydration Effects for the Incorporation of Locked Nucleic Acid Nucleotides into DNA Duplexes. Biochemistry 2006, 45, 7347. 

Kaur, H., Wengel, J., Maiti, S. LNA-modified oligonucleotides effectively drive intramolecular-stable hairpin to intermolecular-duplex state. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 2007, 352, 118.

Keinicke, L., Sorensen, M.D., Wengel, J. alpha-L-RNA (alpha-L-ribo Configured RNA): Synthesis and RNA-Selective Hybridization of alpha-L-RNA/alpha-L-LNA Chimera. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2002, 12, 593.

Kennedy, B., Arar, K., Reja, V., and Henry, R.J. Locked nucleic acids for optimizing displacement probes for quantitative realtime PCR. Anal. Biochem. 2006, 348, 294.

Kierzek, E., Ciesielska, A., Pasternak, K., Mathews, D.H., Turner, D.H., Kierzek, R. The influence of locked nucleic acid residues on the thermodynamic properties of 2'-O-methyl RNA/RNA heteroduplexes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005, 33, 5082.

Kiviniemi, M., Nurmi, J., Lovgren, T., Ilonen, J. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes in high-throughput genetic analysis: application to an assay for type 1 diabetes-related HLA-DQB1 alleles. Clin. Biochem. 2005, 38, 1015.

Kloosterman, W.P., Wienholds, E., de Bruijn, E., Kauppinen, S., and Plasterk, R.H. In situ detection of miRNAs in animal embryos using LNA-modified oligonucleotide probes. Nat. Methods 2006, 3, 27.

Koshkin, A., Nielsen, P., Meldgaard, M., Rajwanshi, V.K., Singh, S.K., Wengel, J. LNA (Locked Nucleic Acid): An RNA Mimic Forming Exceedingly Stable LNA: LNA Duplexes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 13252.

Koshkin, A., Rajwanshi, V.K., Wengel, J. Novel Convenient Syntheses of LNA [2.2.1] Bicyclo Nucleosides. Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 4381.

Koshkin, A., Singh, S.K., Nielsen, P., Rajwanshi, V.K., Kumar, R., Meldgaard, M., Olsen, C.E., Wengel, J. LNA (Locked Nucleic Acids): Synthesis of the Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, 5-Methylcytosine, Thymine and Uracil Bicyclonucleoside Monomers, Oligomerisation, and Unprecedented Nucleic Acid Recognition. Tetrahedron 1998, 54, 3607.

Koshkin, A.A. Conformationally restricted triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). Binding properties of alpha-L-LNA and introduction of the N7-glycosylated LNA-guanosine. Tetrahedron 2006, 62, 5962.

Koshkin, A.A. Syntheses and base-pairing properties of locked nucleic acid nucleotides containing hypoxanthine, 2,6-diaminopurine, and 2-aminopurine nucleobases. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 3711.

Koshkin, A.A., Fensholdt, J., Pfundheller, H.M., Lomholt, C. A simplified and efficient route to 2'-O, 4'-C-methylene-linked bicyclic ribonucleosides (locked nucleic acid). J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 8504.

Krieg, A.M., Tonkinson, J., Matson, S., Zhao, Q., Saxon, M., Zhang, L.M., Bhanja, U., Yakubov, L., Stein, C.A. Modification of antisense phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides by a 5' cholesteryl moiety increases cellular association and improves efficacy. PNAS 1993, 90, 1048.

Kumar, N., Nielsen, K.E., Maiti, S. Petersen, M. J Triplex Formation with alfa-L-LNA (alfa-l-Ribo-Configured Locked Nucleic Acid). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14.

Kumar, R., Singh, S.K., Koshkin, A.A., Rajwanshi, V.K., Meldgaard, M., Wengel, J. The first analogues of LNA (locked nucleic acids): phosphorothioate-LNA and 2'-thio-LNA. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1998, 8, 2219.

Kumar, T. S., Madsen, A. S., Wengel, J., and Hrdlicka, P. J. Synthesis and Hybridization Studies of 2’-Amino-alpha-L-LNA and a Tetracyclic “Locked LNA”. J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 4188.

Kurreck, J., Wyszko, E., Gillen, C., Erdmann, V.A. Design of antisense oligonucleotides stabilized by locked nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30, 1911.

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Kvaernø, L., Wightman, R.H., and Wengel, J. Synthesis of a Novel Bicyclic Nucleoside Restricted to an S-Type Conformation and Initial Evaluation of Its Hybridization Properties When Incorporated into Oligodeoxynucleotides. J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 5106.

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Nagai, Y., Miyazawa, H., Huqun, Tanaka, T., Udagawa, K., Kato, M., Fukuyama, S., Yokote, A., Kobayashi, K., Kanazawa, M., Hagiwara, K. Genetic heterogeneity of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines revealed by a rapid and sensitive detection system, the peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid PCR clamp. Cancer Res.  2005, 65, 7276.

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Nielsen, K.E., Rasmussen, J., Kumar, R., Wengel, J., Jacobsen, J.P., Petersen, M. NMR Studies of Fully Modified Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) Hybrids: solution Structure of an LNA:RNA Hybrid and Characterization of an LNA:DNA Hybrid. Bioconjugate Chem. 2004, 15, 449.

Nielsen, K.E., Singh, S.K., Wengel, J., Jacobsen, J.P. Solution structure of an LNA hybridized to DNA: NMR study of the d(CT(L)GCT(L)T(L)CT(L)GC):d(GCAGAAGCAG) duplex containing four locked nucleotides. Bioconjugate Chem. 2000, 11, 228.

Nielsen, K.E., Spielmann, H.P. The Structure of a Mixed LNA/DNA:RNA Duplex Is Driven by Conformational Coupling between LNA and Deoxyribose Residues as Determined from (13)C Relaxation Measurements. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 15273.

Nielsen, K.M.E., Petersen, M., Haakansson, A.E., Wengel, J., Jacobsen, J.P. Alpha-LNa (alpha-L-ribo Configures Locked Nucleic Acid) Recognition of DNA: An NMR Spectroscopic Study. Chem. Eur. J. 2002, 8, 3001.

Nielsen, P., Christensen, N.K., and Dalskov, J.K. a –LNA (Locked Nucleic Acid with a–D-Configuration): Synthesis and Selective Parallel Recognition of RNA. Chemistry 2002, 8, 712.

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Nielsen, P., Wengel, J. Synthesis and chemoselective activation of phenyl 3,5-di-0-benzyl-2-0,4-C-methylene-1-thio-beta-D-ribofuranoside: a key synthon towards alfa-LNA. Chem. Commun. 1998, 2645.

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Obika, S., Andoh, J., Sugimoto, T., Miyashita, K., Imanishi, T. Synthesis of a conformationally locked AZT analogue 3'-azido-3'-deoxy-2'-0,4'-C-methylene-5methyluridine. Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 6465.

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Parekh-Olmedo, H., Drury, M., Kmiec, E.B. Targeted nucleotide exchange in Saccharomyces cerevisiae directed by short oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acids. Chem. Biol. 2002, 9, 1073.

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Raj, H. G., Gupta, K., Rohil, V., Bose, M., Bisaws, G., Singh, S. K., Jain, S. C., Parmar, V. S., Olsen, C. E., and Wengel, J. Aflatoxin B1-induced micronuclei and cell cycle alterations in lung and bone marrow cells and their modulation by Piper argyrophyllum extract. Tetragenesis, Carcinogenesis and Multagenesis 1998, 18, 249.

Rajwanshi, V.K., Haakansson, A.E., Dahl, B.M., Wengel, J. LNA stereoisomers: xylo-LNA (beta-D-xylo configures locked nucleic acid) and alfa-L-LNA (alfa-L-ribo configures locked nucleic acid). Chem. Commun. 1999, 1395.

Rajwanshi, V.K., Haakansson, A.E., Kumar, R., Wengel, J. High-affinity nucleic acid recognition using 'LNA' (locked nucleic acid, beta-D-ribo configures LNA), 'xylo-LNA' (beta-D-xylo confirgures LNA) or 'alfa-L-LNA' (alfa-L-ribo configured LNA). Chem. Commun. 1999, 2073.

Rajwanshi, V.K., Haakansson, A.E., Sorensen, M.D., Pitsch, S., Singh, S.K., Kumar, R., Nielsen, P., Wengel, J. The Eight Stereoisomers of LNA (Locked Nucleic Acid): A Remarkable Family of Strong RNA Binding Molecules. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 1656.

Rajwanshi, V.K., Kumar, R., Kofod-Hansen, M., Wengel, J. Synthesis and restricted furanose conformations of three novel bicyclic thymine nucleosides: a xylo-LNA nucleoside, a 3'-0,5'-C-methylene-linked nucleoside, and a 2'-0,5'-C-methylene-linked nucleoside. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans 1, 1999, 1407.

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Raunak, Ravindra, B.B., Sorensen, M.D., Parmar, V.S., Harrit, N.H., Wengel, J. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing alpha-L-ribo configured LNA-type C-aryl nucleotides. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2004, 2, 80.

Rekasi, Z., Horvath, R.A., Klausz, B., Nagy, E., and Toller, G.L. Suppression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase transcription and melatonin secretion from chicken pinealocytes transfected with Bmal1 antisense oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acid in superfusion system. Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 2006, 249, 84.

Rosenbohm, C., Christensen, S., Sorensen, M.D., Pedersen, D.S., Larsen, L.E., Wengel, J., Koch, T. Synthesis of 2'-amino-LNA: a new strategy. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2003, 1, 655

Rosenbohm, C., Pedersen, D.S. Regio- and Stereoselective synthesis of LNA guanine nucleosides. ACS Boston National Meeting, 2002.

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Salmi, P., Kela, J., Good, F., Wengel, J., Wahlestedt, C. Locked Nucleic Acids (LNA): A Novel and Efficacious Class of Oligonucleotides for Antisense Knockdown in vivo. Society for Neuroscience 1999, 25, 2003.

Schmidt, A.M., and Rott, M.E. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantitative detection of Brassica napus using a locked nucleic acid TaqMan probe. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54, 1158.

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Silahtaroglu, A.N., Pfundheller, H.M., Koshkin, A., Tommerup, N., Kauppinen, S. LNA modified oligonucleotides are highly efficient as FISH probes. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004, 107, 32.

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Ugozzoli, L.A., Latorra, D., Pucket, R., Arar, K., Hamby, K. Real-time genotyping with oligonucleotide probes containing locked nucleic acids. Anal. Biochem. 2004, 324, 143.

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